Placement of mechanical engineering in general is defined by socio-economic factors and first of all – existence of rather large number of the qualified manpower, and also – consumers of finished goods. The characteristic feature of mechanical engineering influencing placement is high development of specialization and cooperation. Specialization facilitates the organization of mass production, promotes more rational use of the equipment, labor productivity increase. One of the most characteristic, in respect of broad development of specialization and cooperation of the enterprises, in mechanical engineering the automobile industry is.
In mechanical engineering there is a chronological classification. The latest branches which arose in the second half of the XX century are allocated. First of all, it is branches of the highest floors of mechanical engineering: electronic engineer, radio technician, robotechnician, space-rocket industry, etc. New branches which arose in the second half to the XIX and first half of the XX centuries: an avia - and motor transportation equipment, parovozo-and deisel locomotive manufacturing, production of the equipment for numerous branches of a national economy and the industry, etc. Production of metal products belongs to the old branches which arose in the XVIII and first half of the XIX centuries for primary branches of economy – rural and forestry, a mining industry.
Almost ¾ production of mechanical engineering it is redistributed between the developed countries. It is caused by that developing countries are not able to afford big costs of science. The developed capitalist and new industrial countries are allocated with scales of production of mechanical engineering intended for export, and from here their special attention to improvement of quality of products.
The agricultural mechanical engineering has a consumer factor of placement and therefore is concentrated in the main agricultural regions of the world. The developed countries which achieved the highest level of mechanization of agriculture reduce production of agricultural machinery, paying attention to increase of its quality and technological capabilities, gradually concede the leadership to developing countries on absolute measures of production. Now on production of tractors are allocated:
It is difficult to overestimate value of a machine-building complex. Its major task – realization of achievements of scientific and technical progress, ensuring complex mechanization and automation of production, supply of economic branches with new equipment, satisfaction of the population modern consumer goods.
The agricultural mechanical engineering includes the enterprises for production of farm vehicles for mechanization of all types of agricultural production (processing of the soil, crops of cultures, harvesting), including in animal husbandry.
Directly the following problems belong to mechanical engineering: reduction of consumption of metal due to increase of its quality and weight reduction of products, reduction of waste and losses of metal at its processing – due to production of a bigger share of hire.
Automotive engineering is the typical representative of the average mechanical engineering making difficult cars and the equipment of average dimensions for branches of the national economy specialized on stages of technological process with the developed cooperation and orientation of the main production to the regions of concentration of the qualified manpower which are allocated with a high commercial crop.
The heavy mechanical engineering includes production of the equipment for the metallurgical enterprises, the mining, mining, large power and hoisting-and-transport equipment, heavy machines and forge and press cars, and also other metal-consuming and large-size products.
Mechanical engineering – the largest complex branch determining the level of scientific and technical progress in all national economy as provides all branches with cars, the equipment, devices, and the population – consumer goods. Includes also metal working, repair of cars and the equipment. For it deepening of specialization of production and expansion of its scales is especially characteristic.